Wednesday, June 10, 2020

The Fragmented Nature of Pedro Páramo - Literature Essay Samples

A fragmented narrative challenges readers to piece together the jumbled components of a narrative in order to make sense of the story (Hamilton). Although hard to follow at times, the narrative presents an alternative form for storytelling. In his work Pedro Pà ¡ramo, Rulfo jumps between the past and present in order to portray the mysticism of the genre as well as suggest the oral story telling tradition of Mexican culture. Due to the inclusion of heteroglossia, similar stories surface frequently throughout the story, providing Juan with multiple perspectives of his father’s character. In order to make sense of the scattered fragments, Rulfo organizes specific indications to readers in the text, specifically through water and sound. In Latin American literature, magical realism remains one of the most popular genres (Rave). This type of novel oftentimes pairs with a fragmented narrative to create a sense of mysticism or magic. As the novel progresses, Rulfo omits the answers to numerous questions; leaving it up to the readers to formulate their own answers. The lack of detail and ambiguity surrounding the open-ended mysteries designates any plausible answers, even the supernatural ones. Pieces of information hidden within the fragments serve as support for unanswered assumptions. The cause of Juan’s death, for instance, remains unknown. The solitary detail that Juan explicitly states, â€Å"The murmuring killed me† (Rulfo 58) offers the only insight for his death. This single phrase alone bears a multitude of possible interpretations. A more realistic interpretation would suggest that if Juan hears voices, it could mean he is schizophrenic. The voices in his head could influence him to do something that leads to his demise. Another realistic interpretation might blame dehydration for Juan’s death. When a person dies, commonly, a spirit visits the person just before their final moment. Juan might not notice his dying nature when he first enters the blistering town of Comala. In the words of his guide Abundio, â€Å"That town sits on the coals of the earth, at the very mouth of hell† (6). Since Rulfo never explicitly mentions that Juan drinks any water, readers might assume that dehydration gets the best of him. Instead of recognizing his lack of water, Juan blames the spirits for his death instead. However, taking a more supernatural viewpoint can lead readers to actually believe that the spirits surrounding Juan are to blame for his decease. This ambiguous question, as well as many others, correlates impeccably with a fragmented narrative. The shifting of narrators and time periods leave the readers contemplating the information they gather and making their own interpretations of the situation. As seen in the first few pages of the novel, Rulfo employs an untraditional writing style. The opening sentences appear in fragments and in a shorter length than a traditional sentence, as seen in Dolores’s request for her son, â€Å"Don’t ask him for anything. Just what’s ours. What he should have given me but never did†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (3). By using the shorter sentences, Rulfo tries to convey the nature of an oral story. The story-teller typically chooses to not include all the details of story, but rather the ones that seem crucial to understanding the story. From the three short fragments, readers learn their first negative impression of Pedro as well as a foreshadowing of future events of the plot. Moreover, the exceptionally amount of detail, in addition to the sentence structure, produces the effect of Juan narrating an oral story from memory. As Juan and Abundio travel, Ruflo includes ample detail of their surroundings in order to paint a picture for reade rs, â€Å"In the shimmering sunlight, the plain was a transparent lake dissolving in mists that veiled a gray horizon. Farther in the distance, a range of mountains. And farther still, faint remoteness† (5). Rulfo often fails to provide this amount of detail throughout the whole novel. He only includes the necessary information to ensure that his readers follow along without confusion. The negligence of detail offers an alternative reason for Rulfo’s choice of a fragmented narrative. Memory recollection typically transpires thematically rather than chronologically; explaining the inconsistency of the story’s timeline. In the end, Pedro Pà ¡ramo appears as an oral story through the usage of a fragmented sentence structure as well as the sprinkling of meticulous detail throughout the narrative. According John Mullan, heteroglossia refers to â€Å"works that make present the clashes and incongruities of different voices† (Mullan). A variety of different narrators present themselves throughout the novel Pedro Pà ¡ramo. With the inclusion of multiple narrators comes the repetition of particular stories that highlight different qualities of Pedro Pà ¡ramo. Rulfo associates heteroglossia with the memories of different town members since a majority of them include a common theme: a hatred for Miguel Pà ¡ramo. Through the eyes of Father Rentarà ­a, Don Fulgor, and Doà ±a Eduviges, readers discover that Miguel kills another man. Since heteroglossia presents multiple perspectives along with ample detail, each version of Miguel’s story provides more detail on Pedro’s character through his parenting skills. From the perspective of Father Rentarà ­a, readers construct an idea of Pedro’s parenting skills, or lack thereof. If Pedro would have taken an au thoritative position over his son; Miguel would not sneak out of the house to rape girls. Moreover, Don Fulgor’s memory of Miguel reveals Pedro’s absence in his son’s life. Even though Don Fulgor attempts to convince him otherwise, Pedro refuses to believe that his son possesses the capabilities to kill another man. Yet, Fulgor’s memory also presents a rare, soft, side to Pedro’s character. In response to Fulgor’s comment about the killing, Pedro responds, â€Å"Just think of it as something I did, Fulgor† (64). Pedro assumes the responsibility of killing the man rather than having his son take responsibility, possibly indicating caring feelings towards Miguel. According to the memory of Doà ±a Eduviges, readers acquire knowledge Pedro’s distant relationship with his son. As Eduviges recalls to Juan the moment when she learns about Miguel’s death, she mentions the ranch hand stating, â€Å"†¦ I think the animal is suffering more than don Pedro† (23). The absence of Pedro’s sympathy for his son proposes that Pedro Pà ¡ramo does not embody the figure of a loving father that Juan wants him to. Overall, Rulfo’s inclusion of heteroglossia throughout the story serves as a benefit to readers as they are able to investigate more qualities of Pedro’s character through the perspectives of other town members. In addition, the jumping between past and present tense throughout the novel Pedro Pà ¡ramo enhances the possibility of confusion. To avoid this, Rulfo associates key motifs with the time period in order to trigger recognition from the reader. Pedro’s time in Comala starkly contrasts the Comala that Juan discovers on his journey; the old town prospers and embodies a particular liveliness. Whenever a mentioning of water occurs, the scene transpires in the past. Water represents a variety of things; but, in this case, water symbolizes life. During fragments of the past, Rulfo usually includes details about the heavy rain, indicating Comala’s former glory. Juan experiences the opposite of what he expects to see as he enters Comala for the first time. He envisions the town being this beautiful place that his mother admired, â€Å"Green pastures. Watching the horizon rise and fall as the wind swirled through the wheat, an afternoon rippling with curling lines of rain. The color of the earth, the smell of alfalfa and bred. A town that smelled like spilled honey†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (18). Instead, Juan stumbles upon a sweltering ghost town. Therefore, the lack of water conveys to the readers that the fragment occurs in Juan’s time. The abundance of water indicates Comala’s past. Moreover, the element of sound also indicates the time in which the fragment takes place. Pedro’s Comala appears noisy; indicating to the reader the town’s liveliness. Similar to the water motif, Juan expects a noisy, bustling town when he entered Comala. It shocks him to discover the opposite, â€Å"Empty carts, churning the silence of the streets† (46). In the end, the contrasting motif of an abundance of water and sound versus their absence clearly indicates to the reader the timeframe of the fragment. All in all, there are a plethora of reasons to justify why Rulfo’s choice of a fragmented narrative in his work Pedro Pà ¡ramo. Since this style contributes to the feeling of magical realism and reflects the sensation of oral storytelling, it promotes readers to make their own assumptions about the plot and create their own conclusions. The repetition of particular stories throughout the novel provides Juan, as well as the readers, with an ability to discover more about the character Pedro Pà ¡ramo. By pairing heteroglossia and story recurrences, the readers acquire a wealth of information about the infamous patrà ³n. Since fragmented narratives seem difficult to follow, Rulfo provides readers with the tags of water and sound so they are able to piece together the string of memories displayed in the novel.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Hiv And The Second Sexual Revolution - 1769 Words

The period from the 1960s until the 1980s is one that many would define as the second sexual revolution. Different kinds of relationships and alternative forms of sexuality became increasingly accepted. Then, in the 1980s, the AIDS crisis gained national attention and the perception of sexuality changed dramatically. People became less liberal about sex as they tried to protect themselves from the disease. Because HIV had not garnered much attention in the media before the 1980s, scientists had not really focused on finding a treatment. HIV, which stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is a virus which weakens the immune system of its host by reproducing in the host’s immune cells. Unlike most viruses, the human body cannot clear HIV out†¦show more content†¦As of yet, no real cure to the disease has been found, but doctors have a much better understanding of it. Fortunately, there is a better understanding of it now, but that was not always the case. The AIDS crisi s of the 1980s caused widespread panic in the public view and gave people reason to condemn sexual freedom in an attempt to protect themselves from the disease. The 1960s was a period of change in America. Civil rights movements were at the forefront of domestic culture, protests against racial discrimination took a main role, but seemingly everyone was fighting for equal rights of some kind. Among these, were liberal, sometimes radical peace movements and intertwined with these movements came the concept of â€Å"free love.† People became more liberal about sexuality and the way they viewed other people’s sex lives. This culture of free love remained fairly strong through the 1970s, but when the AIDS crisis became a concern in the early 1980s, people panicked, and the liberty that people had in the 1960s and 70s seemed to disappear. One of the big proponents in the way the perception of sexuality changed in the 1980s was Christianity, perhaps because Christianity took a backseat during the so-called sexual revolution in the 1960s and 70s. Religious response to the AIDS crisis generally leaned towards one of two poles: blaming the victim, or helping the victim. In Christianity and Social Issues, Michael Keene says â€Å"AIDS

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Dialogic Teaching in Maths - 2538 Words

The use of questioning and paired work in Mathematics Traditionally, mathematics and language-based subjects have been seen as occurring on opposite sides of a great divide. However, in recent years teachers have realised the importance of talk across the curriculum including mathematics. This is supported by the DfEE (1999a, p11) who state that ‘high quality interactive teaching is oral, interactive and lively. It is a two way process in which pupils are expected to play an interactive role by answering questions, contributing points to discussions, and explaining and demonstrating their methods to the class.’ The recent Cambridge review reinforced the message that ‘teachers†¦show more content†¦Summerfield is a multi cultural school with the majority of pupils from minority backgrounds. The proportion of children speaking English as an additional language is well above average, with almost 25 different languages represented in the school. Ofsted als o noted that one in three pupils has learning difficulties and/or disabilities; which is well above the national average. The school worked on a year and a half form entry basis and so classes were generally small. During numeracy children were divided into three ability groups and each group was taught separately. My partner and I (Miss M) worked with the lower ability group. Ofsted (2009) noted that the ‘arrangements for teaching numeracy in smaller groups have had a dramatic effect on pupils progress, improving mathematics from a relative weakness to one of the schools strengths.’ However, doing so may mean that children know that very little is expected from them. According to Cockburn (1999, p15) ‘if a child is labelled as not being able or lacking in confidence, it may not be very long before that child ceases to perform to the best of their abilities.’ In order to ensure that we both had enough teaching opportunities we decided we would lead the class alternate lessons – whilst the other worked with a group ofShow MoreRelatedThe Method Of Instruction That Physics Teachers876 Words   |  4 PagesThe learning theory encompasses the reasoning behind why teaching and learning is approached in such a broad manner and the influences that go into the relationship in order to best benefit learning. Over time, students vary with how they best learn with the technology and ever- changing world around them. Therefore, instruction should be suited to change with it. These two articles point towards a general concession: that learning and teaching should not depend on one approach, but many directionsRead MoreJohn Hattie s Synthesis Of Approximately 800 Meta Analysis Studies948 Words   |  4 PagesThis approach is applied to the district curriculum to provide equity for my students. A dialogic approach to math discourse further suppo rts this type of learning community and promotes a learner-centered environment. The dialogic approach lacks a set of pre-determined correct responses. This method of questioning allows students to expand and alter the responses of other students. The dialogic approach to math discourse enables the teacher to employ primarily individual nominations to select participantsRead MoreThe Effects Of Classroom Talk On The Classroom2407 Words   |  10 PagesIn teaching, a large proportion of time is spent in talking and listening. As the major factor in a classroom it should become the main process by which a pupil learns. After all it is the primary method that humans use to communicate. It leads me to ask how important is it? And does what is talked about in lessons equate to the quality of learning that is happening in the classroom. On the basis of these questions, Daniels (2001 cited in Alexander, 2004:8) argues that classroom talk not only mediatesRead MoreMadison Metropolitan Scho ol District18559 Words   |  75 Pagesstrategies to render the values expressed in their practice more consistent with the educational values they espouse; record their work in a form which is readily available to and understandable by other teachers; and thus develop a shared theory of teaching by researching practice. - John Elliott What is Action Research? | Five Phases of Action Research | Starting Points | Data Collection: The 5 W s and an H | Writing Prompts for Classroom Action Researchers | Ideas for Your Final Write-up | What

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Defense of Poetry and An Apology for Poetry - 2888 Words

Written in 1821, and published posthumously nineteen years later, Sidney’s essay, known as both The Defense of Poetry and An Apology For Poetry, stands as one of the most enduring writings on the merits of poetry and was highly influential upon the views of the period. Written, partially as a response to Stephen Gosson’s ‘School of Abuse’ and wider challenges to poetry, such as those of Plato. COULD SAY MORE SPECIFICALLY WHAT CHALLENGES HE IS RESPONDING TO HERE The essay operates under the central premise that the highest function of literature is to guide man towards virtue and serves to argue that poetry is the best literary vehicle to accomplish this. Sidney’s opening assertion of the merits of poetry is to claim it: ‘the first light-giver to ignorance, and the first nurse, whose milk by little and little enabled them to feed afterwards of tougher knowledges.’ Sidney takes little time in arguing this point or considering challenges, holding it to be self-evident. In considering how convincingly Sidney makes his argument, it is important to explore and challenge this premise. Perhaps the best contender for a role of equal value in literature is that of catharsis. Aristotle’s poetics, from which the term first appeared, defines the process of catharsis as using vicarious experience through literature and drama to guide the audience through negative emotions and therefore ‘effecting the proper purgation of these emotions.’ The dissipation ofShow MoreRelatedMargaret Ellen Lamb s Exploration Of Sidney s Defense Of Poesy922 Words   |  4 PagesMary Ellen Lamb s exploration of Sidney s Defense of Poesy notes early modern cultural anxieties around poetry s potential power to effeminise and infantilize. Sidney challenges contemporary accusations against poetry, existing on concerns for the morality and virtuosity of its audiences. However Lamb supplies an additional stance regarding the masculine intellectual ideology of the Tudor education system. This suggests that poetry halts the indoctrination of young adult males into an emergin gRead More Apology for Poetry Essay1900 Words   |  8 PagesAn â€Å"Apology for Poetry† is a compelling essay refuting the attack on poetry by Puritan and fundamentalist Stephen Gosson. This complex article written by Sir Phillip Sidney represents the decisive rebuttal defending poetry. His strong emotive passages defend the uncongenial comments of poetry from Gosson. Although, his justification for the rebuttal is alluded to Gosson’s durable attacks on poetry; it is known Gosson’s remarks prompt Sidney’s attitude to defend not only against Gosson but as wellRead More Literature and Virtue in Sidneys Apology for Poetry Essay1197 Words   |  5 PagesLiterature and Virtue in Sidneys Apology for Poetry      Ã‚  Ã‚   In An Apology for Poetry Sir Philip Sidney attempts to reassert the fundamental importance of literature to society in general as well as to other creative and intellectual endeavors. Though Sidneys work does provide a synthesis (and in some cases an aberration) of much Greek and Roman literary theory, his argument aspires to go beyond an esoteric academic debate. Literature can teach and delight in a manner which other methodsRead MoreSidney Defends The Worth Of Poetry2624 Words   |  11 PagesSidney defends the worth of poetry by presenting us with a long defense written to William Ponsonby, a very popular publisher of the Elizabethan era. Sidney breaks his argument down into eight sections, each one arguing another point as to why poetry is worthy and should not be thought of as sub-par literature. His arguments are thorough, leaving no gaps between thoughts, and very persuasive in both content and style. I believe his argument is both successful and thorough, cover ing everything thatRead MoreBroken Family3761 Words   |  16 Pagesâ€Å"Personal background† Born: 384 BC Stagira, Chalcidice Died: 322 BC (aged 61 or 62) Euboea Nationality: Greek Era: Ancient philosophy Region: Western philosophy School: Peripatetic schoolAristotelianism Main interests: Physics, Metaphysics, Poetry, Theatre, Music, Rhetoric, Politics, Government, Ethics, Biology, and Zoology Notable ideas: Golden mean, Aristotelian logic, syllogism, hexis, homomorphism, Aristotles theory of soul Plato Philosopher Plato was a philosopher in ClassicalRead MoreLenses of Education 1051 Words   |  4 Pagestrial in the â€Å"Apology† and in â€Å"Meno.† One of the main factors discussed in both texts are the role of teachers in society and if Socrates is a teacher. Socrates also relates past stories or experiences when giving his dialogues. This allows him to explain his thoughts and reasons on certain topics. One final factor that plays a role in both the â€Å"Apology† and â€Å"Meno† is the role of the gods through the dialogues. Teachers, stories, and the role of gods all play a key role in the â€Å"Apology† and â€Å"Meno†Read MoreApology, By Plato s Apology1298 Words   |  6 Pagesknowing you know nothing.† In â€Å"Apology,† written by Plato, this ethical belief makes a bold appearance demonstrating that true ignorance only revolves around those who think that they know everything. In â€Å"Apology,† Socrates learns that the wisest men are those who do not think of themselves of wise, and rather make an approach of going beyond an authentic method of inquiry and helping others seek their personal philosophies which may result in conflict. In Plato’s â€Å"Apology,† Socrates demonstrates thatRead MoreSocrates Argument Of Wisdom1673 Words   |  7 Pagesdiscredits a defense or the way one undermines an argument, and sometimes they just bring things into question. A specific situation is Socrates’ defense in The Apology. One could assume that the gentlemen of the law were closely examining and judging Socrates’ words and statements, but possibly more than the gentlemen, philosophers examine Socrates’ words through the text. Many thinkers have found great and small contradictions throughout, one concerning Socrates’ statements of wisdom. In The Apology SocratesRead MoreMachiavelli s The Prince And Plato s Apology1697 Words   |  7 PagesMachiave lli’s â€Å"The Prince† and Plato’s â€Å"Apology† Philosophers have unique and yet similar ways of interpreting life through a variety of different values and beliefs appointed to oneself. Some philosophers have the ability and courage to stand up to what they are trying to accomplish or for what they believe in, even if consequences follow their actions. Machiavelli and Plato have different perspectives and goals in their writing, however their stories also have some underlining similarities suchRead More Socrates Essay1087 Words   |  5 Pagesof absolutes. This alternative is not without its faults. Socratic philosophy is plagued by a destructive element. It reduces the authoritative opinions about political life but replaces it with nothing. This is the vital stem from which the quot;Apology of Socratesquot; is written. Because of the stinging attack on Athenian life, and the opinions which they revere so highly, Socrates is placed on trial for his life. The question now becomes why and in what manner did Socrates refute the gods and

The Divorce Of A Divorce - 941 Words

For many years now couples have shown their love in various ways and one of those ways is getting married and living together forever. Nevertheless, some couples find that when problems come up in their marriage and find it hard to maintain their devotion to one another they start to seem that being together is not an option that they have anymore. When they are unable to maintain their marriage, their solution is to choose is divorce. Divorce, is defined as, the legal dissolution of a marriage by a court or other competent body. In today’s society, divorce is more normal than ever before due to unhappy marriages. The effects of the divorce are emotional effects, financial problems, and direction to an improved lifestyle. When it comes to divorce there s so many emotions that are being effected in the situation such as depression, happiness and even other individuals emotions are affected such as children. In a divorce depression is common, but not a good factor to maintain for it could really affect a person. Depression can cause many negative effects could be drug usage, alcohol abuse, and even death. People with depression are at increased risk of substance abuse and addiction especially if alcohol is involved. In the article Project Know: understanding addiction, â€Å"Almost 50 percent of people who use drugs and alcohol have a mental health disorder. Oftentimes, substance abuse is an attempt to self-medicate.† The outcome of the abuse of medication taken with alcohol canShow MoreRelatedDivorce And Divorce1479 Words   |  6 PagesDivorce/ separation is one issue that I saw preeminent in my extended family. My grandmother, uncles, aunts, cousins and even myself, we had encounter divorce/ separation. My nuclear and extended family is full Mexican, our culture is you marry the love of your life and live happily ever after. Apparently, that did not happen to myself or other members of my extended family. I growth with some believes that end up changing my perspective of marriage 360degreess. The importance of Marriage HispanicsRead MoreDivorce And The Divorce Process1471 Words   |  6 Pagesthe subject of divorce, it became very apparent that the stressors leading up to divorce, the entire legal process, adjusting to life afterward and everything in between, left little more than devastation in its wake. By and large, divorce is incredibly taxing on several fronts. We will discuss the emotional ramifications of divorce for spouses and children, what environmental factors contribute strongest to the dissolution of marriage, what percentage of marriages end in divorce, and the estimationRead MoreThe Divorce Rate Of Divorce1123 Words   |  5 Pagesrelationship, therefore they choose divorce, which is one of the solutions to cope with problems between husband and wife. 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This rate of separation is essentially a heads-or-tails on marriages to determine whether or not they will work out and if a child will be affectedRead MoreDivorce And The Divorce Rate Essay1537 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction In the last 25 years, divorce has become a major issue in American society. Since the turn of the century, the divorce rate has held steady between 4.0-3.2 divorces per 1000 people per year (National Vital Statistics System, 2015). With this rising divorce rate, more children are living between parents, or in single family homes, and many of these children have been exposed to altercations between parents, as well as rough custody battles and divorce settlements. 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Divorce is what allows people that opportunity (Coltrane and Adams p. 201). However, the intricacies of divorce are complicated. Much of the conversation of divorce is focused on fault andRead MoreDivorce And Its Effect On Divorce2098 Words   |  9 PagesThe memories of divorce have never been more sorrowful to any age group than the children of divorced parents. Although a couple’s marriage vows usually include the phrase â€Å"till death do us part,† about half of all marriages end up in divorce (â€Å"Divorce†). The reasons for divorce could be very simple as well as they could be complex. Some reasons for divorce are adultery, simple arrogance, dishonesty, insecurity, domestic and sexual abuses. In some situation divorce may provide relief from theRead MoreDivorce Essay On Divorce1972 Words   |  8 PagesProject October 13, 2017 The American Divorce: Before and After No-Fault Mr. and Mrs. James Luxford of the Massachusetts Bay Colony hold the distinction of being the first couple to divorce in the American Colonies back on December 3, 1639, on the grounds of bigamy. After the divorce was granted, James was promptly thrown in the stocks and eventually banished to England. Divorce was treated with more severity back then. The stigma once connected to divorce has changed drastically throughout AmericanRead MoreDivorce808 Words   |  4 Pagestheir relationship so they choose to divorce, which is one of the solutions to cope with problems between a husband and wife. Most people claim to think carefully before they get married, but the divorce rates continue to increase. There are three main causes of divorce: the changing of a man and a woman s role, stress in modern living and the lack of communication between the married couple. The first significant cause of recent rise in the rates of divorce is that women completely change in roles

HIV/AIDS Prevention in Cambodia Cambodian Governance

Question: Describe about the HIV/AIDS Prevention in Cambodia for Cambodian Governance. Answer: Introduction: This paper will provide a discussion of the Cambodian prevention programs of HIV/AIDS. It will be based on the links between the Cambodian governance of HIV/AIDS, the involvement of Nongovernmental organisations (NGO) and the emphasis of human rights. It will analyze the current strategy of this disease and will review the positive and negative impacts of the patients and communities who live with HIV/AIDS disease. Background of HIV/AIDS in Cambodia: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a unique kind of virus, which mainly aims at targeting the immune system of individuals and thereby results in weakening the peoples defence systems against a large number of different infections and various types of cancer. In such cases, the infected persons becomes immunodeficient that mainly results in destruction as well as impairment of the immune cells by the virus. The most vulnerable stage in HIV infections is the Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome that can develop over a period of 2 to 15 years and depends upon the immunity system of the individuals. Different types of cancer, infections and other types of several clinical manifestations are found in the individuals who have developed AIDS. If one makes an estimate globally , it would be found that about 34 to 39.8 million people are infected with HIV at the end of 2015 and this infection have claimed about more than half a of 25 million lives so far in spite of large number of init iative s were taken to eradicate HIV. It is yet one of the most important challenges in the public health sector mainly in low and middle income countries as like that in Cambodia. This infection can spread through a number of medium such as exchange of different types of body fluids from infected individuals all over the world. These modes of fluid exchange may contain blood, breast milk, vaginal secretions and also semen (World Health Organisation, 2016). The UN Millenium Declaration was adopted in the The Millennium Summit in the year 2000 in September under the guidance of the worlds top leaders in history. They proposed eight Millenium Development goals among which fighting the infection of HIV was a goal which was numbered six. This addition of the treatment of the disease to the Millennium Goals easily gives us the hint how this disease and its treatment has been challenging to every researchers and scientists among all other diseases. It is very surprising to see that Cambod ia is one of the very few countries that have become successful in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in relation to that of HIV. If one looks over the past decade, he can easily notice how Cambodia has cut off the prevalence of adult HIV by nearly 60%. Therefore it has also been successful in achieving the Universal access target for treatment as seen in 80% cases in adults and children. Cambodia has recently launched another strategic plan called Cambodia 3.0 that is built on the previous successes and aims at an approach that would help to eliminate any new HIV infection cases and deaths due to AIDS by the year 2020 (Centre for disease Control and prevention 2015). Cambodia experiences a middle lower economy after 20 years of Gross national Income increase. The garment sector, Construction and services are the main drivers of the Cambodian Economy. Cambodia has achieved the MDG in spite of facing the same poverty and they also developed the health and an education system which is still considered to be their development priorities and also challenges (The World Bank, 2016). The success of Cambodia in its initiative to eradicate the infection of HIV has been recognised internationally. The incidences of new occurrence of HIV cases have reduced by 67% from the amount of 3500 patients to 1300 in the year 2013. More than two thirds of the individuals infected by HIV have received interventions in the form of antiretroviral therapy. Pregnant women have also achieved various interventions that had prevented the spread of the infections to their wards. However the a high rate of infection is still noted among various other cases such as in those cases where there is sexual relationships between two males, people taking drugs by injection, transgender categories, male polices, workers in garment factories, workers in the entertainment industry and also sex workers. The government has adopted a landmark ministerial regulation with a motive to improve the condition of the occupational safety and health systems. This newly launched policy covers all the cases of s exual harassment and provides access to different health services in the health care sectors. This initiative taken by the government shows an example how Cambodia has planned out to provide attention to search solutions to other health and human right issues by using the HIV models which can be declared as a very new model to this region( United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNAIDS, 2014). This paer will evaluate avital HIV/AIDS strategy being conducted in Cambodia 2011 called Cambodia 3.0., which has been the main initiative and aim of the framework proposed which is to eradicate the new HIV infections by the year 2020. Cambodia 3.0 is one of the top Cambodias HIV strategies which have mainly focused on the eradication of new HIV incidents by the year 2020. This strategized programme for mitigating the HIV incidences mainly based on improving detection of cases through early HIV testing followed by immediate enrolment in care sectors for key affected populations, pregnant women as well as partners of people living with the infection. This would help in strengthening links between the testing and treatment as well as monitoring. Overall the total HIV/AIDS spending in Cambodia in 2010 was US$ 58.1 million. Global fund was the largest finance source to fight AIDS. There are also other multilateral as well as bilateral donors, who are mainly from United Nations; the royal government of Cambodia had helped by a contribution of only 4 % of the total budget. This programme of Cambodia 3.0 budget is mainly covering external donors (UNAIDS, 2012) Main purpose of the intended strategy: Control and treatment of HIV/ AIDS programs and policies in Cambodia has several purposes. The main purpose of this strategy is to eradicate new HIV infection by the year 2020. This would be mainly achieved by producing new impetus to achieve the national targets within the year 2020. The aims would include reduction of the HIV incidence in the population from 18/100,000 to 3/10,000 or less. Reduction of the incidences of the of transmission of HIV from mothers to their children would aim at decreasing it from 13% in the year 2010 to 2% or even less than that. This program also helps by increasing the overall coverage of different types of screening interventions and treatments to a limit of 95 %. This initiative shad a clear motto and its framework has been clearly discussed in the chart. It focuses on the improvement in case detection through early HIV testing and also immediate enrolment in care sectors for the affected vulnerable populations including: Most at risk Population (MA RPS), their partners as well as people living with HIV (PLHIV) and their partners and also involves the individuals who use antiretroviral drugs. (ART). This strategy also intensifies the link between testing and treatment but introduction of immediate CD4 testing at Voluntary Confidential Counselling and Testing centres (VCCT), enhancing pre (ART) and ART care and monitoring thereby improving retention and incorporating treatment as preventions (UNAIDS, 2012). Positive and negative impacts on health of the strategy: This strategy has a strong and direct positive health impact as in case when this strategy Cambodia 3.0 adopted this new policy it was found that there was a surge in the number of individuals those who were found to be eligible for the treatment of ART. This strategy implemented the use of condom with clients, this appeared stable, and this caused the increase in HIV testing. This program also produced different ways that helped in the identification of then priority actions that has resulted in the acceleration of detention of cases, maximise the cases of retention and help in preparation to attain sustainability in health provisions. Under this new strategy, the estimated number of new perinatal infections have been found to be below 200 cases each year since its time of implementation from the year 2011. Presently it is found that the mother to child transmission rate is estimated to be 7%. While Cambodia is trying in the complete elimination of AIDS during transmission from moth er to child and also a generation that would be free from AIDS, challenges and difficulties are still encountered. Again, negative aspect of this programme is that initial testing is conducted at over 150 sites, confirmatory testing and entry into care and treatment are offered only at 62 sites nationwide, therefore resulting in patients being lost along the cascade of steps after the initial testing is found positive. (Cambodia Country Operational Plan (COP) 2015). Under this strategy, critical analysis is required in order to refocus on the HIV projects to make sure that the implementations are cost efficient and show cost effectiveness. Royal Cambodian Government gas also conducted more researches on it. Along with them, WHO and other partners have also taken steps to confirm the proper implementation of the newly introduced strategy. At present, the project of the National HIV response is handled by international donors who are the main donors like global fund, although Cambodian governments contribution to the project is also seen to increase every year (Cambodian Country Progress Report 2014). Rights and impacts of the program: An important concern is to make the programme reach every remaining individual who are at a very high risk for infection of HIV/STI and are the main factors that are transmitting the infection to their mates as well as from mothers to children. Therefore, it is found that there is under inclusion for this policy. This project is only implemented in 6 important Burden operational Districts like Siem Reap, PhomPenh, Battambang, Pursat, Kampong Champ and others. Provisions f or inclusion of the individuals present as high-risk individuals and then enrolling them to health care is one of the main limitations of the Strategy. Although Cambodia has become successful in creating a very good response to the HIV eradication program with special reference to preventive strategies however they focus was mainly set on increasing HIV testing procedures and preventive interventions were mainly found in defined populations. They have not considered that risks within this mentioned population may va ry. Therefore people who are HIV negative and living in the districts are continuous tested to reduce risks but people present in high risk areas are not being able to be reached. Out of the PLHIV patient who is under treatment, many of them do not have proper access to ART due to lack of transportation price. This is most seen in particularly poor and remote PLHIV (Cambodian National AIDS Authority, 2015). United Sates presidency emergency Plan FOR AIDS Authority (PEPFAR) had stated that there are many laws and policies, which were found to have negative effects on the availability of access and utilisation of the HIV outreach activities. IT also showed that these regulations prevented intervention services in man y cases such as in the strategy Cambodia 3.0 that is present under the law of anti human trafficking and also the important village and commune safety policy. This is mainly because it had resulted many high-risk individuals to conceal them and made it more difficult to m ake them available to the new strategies (PEPFAR 2014). Necessitation of restriction of human rights by the policies: Previously it was believed that HIV is a medical concern over the world but now it is noticed that it has become a concern in the fields of social justice and unfair discrimination mainly against PLHIV. Moreover, gear of stigma has often prevented correct treatment and has become the driving force resulting the soared of HIV/AIDS. This has mitigated the proper understanding as well as realisation of the different types of human rights. Violations of the human rights and the failure of the state to handle the human rights complications had a negative impact on health. It had created obstacles in the fight against the infection. Therefore it impeded the proper association of the public health and human rights which had negative consequences. A proper link between the two always gives the best income (Lara 2008). This strategy has also included gender integration for HIV infection. The main steps that need to be incorporated are that males should be mobilised in case of GBV and also HIV , including government, society, civil, MARPO and PLHIV communities, leadership and various actions, implementation of the concept of equality of gender in the HIV programmes. Proper monitoring to make the women free from any sort of discrimination by CEDAW at both state and national level is also included. However, it is seen that gender integration has found a positive response under this strategy. However, lack of technical and financial resources has impaired the relationship between HIV and GBV (Cambodia country progress report 2014). Meeting of the criteria: The Cambodian government has stick to follow all the different human rights which they have already ratified like the CEDAW and also the human rights without any sort of discrimination. However gap is still present which needs attention. Health and relevant structures and their efficacy: Addition of new laws helped with the suppression of human trafficking and sexual assaults. These has resulted in a proper shut down on brothels all over the nation and complete inhibition of the activities of outdoor based sex workers by the police. Sex workers were given different regular jobs for living. Many sex workers contact their clients in various means which cannot be traced by the police. These new laws had helped gaining access to hidden areas thereby resulting in reduction of incidences. The already existing laws were strict enough to stealing, drug production, prostitution, domestic violence and others which prevented the drug using population to surrender them and take the help from the HIV programmes. Therefore in order to alter the laws by proper facilitation and reviewing collaboration between law enforcement institutions have resulted in including more high risk individuals(Due to fear from police) to take the help of the programme. System of monitoring: Government to obtain different data and information from various sources through surveillance, researches, routing, modelling and others has implemented Monitoring and Evaluation (M E). This is mainly done to track the progress made through the establishment of the different initiatives of the programme. Cambodia has submitted Country progress report from 2003 to 2012 timely that shoe promising results. Conclusion: Cambodia has received the prestigious MDG award for the courageous attempt taken by the nation in the elimination of HIV which was GOAL 6 of the Millennium development goals of U.N. The various challenges like the village commune safety policies, lack of proper accessibility, human resources, quality management and legal barriers if handled with more eminent leadership and planned approaches, there might arise a hope where one can visualise Cambodia as a HIV/AIDS free nation and would be highly honoured with dignity among all the prestigious nations of the world.

Political Correctness Essay Paper Example For Students

Political Correctness: Essay Paper Political Correctness:Like so many other traditions, the burning of the bruin was put on the chopping block recently. The long running University of Southern California spirit activity consisted of throwing a large stuffed bear in a bon fire the night before the football game against their rival, the University of California at Los Angeles. The Black Student Union and other student organizations recently questioned the event. Their concern was that the event too closely resembled past lynching of African Americans in the American south. This raises the question of whether it is appropriate to censor ideas that are not created to offend certain groups. Political correctness, the underlying ideal, is the particular set of attitudes about the world that its proponents maintain should be actively promoted. Clark 369 Proponents of political correctness, or PC, had good intentions in devising the idea, but it has serious flaws. Although political correctness was founded with good intent, it does more harm than good. The most noticeable example of harm is how PC proponents try to please everyone at the same time. The burning of the bruin was just one of many activities held during the week before the big UCLA game. The idea being that everyone could find something that they could identify with and rally around their school. If the burning was intentionally created to represent or oppress the offended students, the event would have been banned long ago. However, as Matt Hutaff stated in his editorial in the Daily Trojan:Its about school pride. Its love for the things that brought the university to where it is today. It is traditions that define a school; its student body and its heritage. Strip the school of its traditions and all you have is a school that isnt worth rallying behind. 5In appeasing one group, it seems the university neglected another group. It seems that the lesson that one cannot please everyone all the time still needs to be learned. Another lesson that needs to be learned is to meet offensive language head on instead of hiding from it. This cannot happen, however, if the college is sheltering us from it. It is the duty of the university to teach us how to live in the real world. How are they going to protect us from what we do not want to hear out there? The answer is they cannot, and the sheltered individuals are left unprepared to confront real world situations that will offend them. As Irene Clark points out, an article by the National Association of Scholars asserts that it is the role of higher education to enable students to grapple with contrary or unpleasant ideas and that to shield them from such ideas will be detrimental in the long run. 373 Unfortunately, there are bad things in the world. There is no way to change that. Ignoring them will not make them go away. Eventually the sheltered must face them. If a school hides these things from its students, they will be unprepared to confront them. Even if PC proponents succeeded in their goal of eliminating offensive actions and language, they can never kill the ideas behind them. In private these ideas can grow and fester unchecked. In public, the offenders can be identified. When forced to hide these ideas, the offenders will still express them in secret. When these people are allowed to express their thoughts and opinions in public, the rest of the world is able to watch what they are doing. If they are not aware that they are being offensive, they can be told, also. As Irene Clark states:whether or not we agree with speech codes, such codes, explicitly or implicitly, are not entirely new, nor do they prevent racist or sexist thought in private. 372As Clark stated earlier, PC is not a new idea. Various social movements have tried to implement this restraint before. It has not worked in the past and it is not gaining much grou..nd today. As John Ellis states in Clarks book:we can ask that people who want to take us through t he fantasy yet one more time first confront the lessons of history that show how disastrous politically correct ideas have proved to be. 378PC was brought up in the past and failed. Its performance today is just as bad. It seems that history repeats itself. .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a , .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a .postImageUrl , .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a , .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a:hover , .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a:visited , .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a:active { border:0!important; } .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a:active , .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf1ed33c9e9d04da026fbafe205b9975a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Why Homeschooling Is On The Rise Of The World EssayHistory teaches us other lessons, too. One lesson is that our country is not perfect, and it makes mistakes. For example, Native Americans were forced to leave their land, and then the government sold that property. The Native Americans were treated like cattle in the name of imperialism, and the country called it Gods will. These Indians, as they were called, were my ancestors. It bothers me that my government could do such a thing. Should I protest a march or similar event? It very closely resembles my ancestors plight, but it is not about repression of Native Americans. Our country made many mistakes in the past, but we have all learned from them. We should not keep reliving and suffering from them by fearing every resemblance to the original act. This brings up the fact that the burning of the bruin has only a vague resemblance to past hate crimes in the south. The resemblance would be more offensive if the toy was of human form. This is a teddy bear in question. It is preposterous to compare the personification of a toy animal to past crimes. An interesting fact is how the burning does not lead to violent actions against any real bears. If either of these happened, then there would be cause for worries. For the defense of PC, however, the argument that the offensive language is distracting does have value. However, the problem with this argument is there are many things in life that are distracting. The best way to cope is to learn how to survive the hurtful speech and offensive actions. Gwen Thomas, a community college administrator, says in Clarks book that we have to teach students how to deal with adversarial situations and how to survive offensive speech they find wounding and hurtful. 393 It may be distracting, but if we do not learn how to deal with hurtful speech we will remain in hiding which could harm us more. Other things less related might come under attack as well. The next likely candidate to be cut is Tommy Trojan, the mascot of the school. As Matt Hutaff questions from a fictitious point of view of Tommy:Im impossibly flexed in every musclea warrior, andmale. Sooner or later, thats bound to catch up with me. Ill probably be melted downLumpy theyll call me, the mascot of bland, unassuming and uninteresting icons that stir no emotionin anyone. 5All it would take is one offended person and Tommys existence is in jeopardy. Nothing is sacred, and anything can come under scrutiny. As Hutaff worries, what will we have to rally around, and to have pride in? I hope we do not get that far. In his book, 1984, George Orwell wrote of a nation, that eliminated all unnecessary words and actions. This government even went as far as to try to control thought. I am afraid that the PC movement will some day attempt this kind of act. I am also worried as to where this campaign will end. PC has already overstepped its original domain and attacked an act remotely related to the offensive actions PC was designed to fight. The best thing to do now is for the PC proponents to step out of their situation and see that respect goes both ways. We cannot have everything manipulated to please each of us. When something offends us, we need to ask ourselves if it is offensive to anyone else. We also need to learn to face our fears, and learn to deal with acts and language that we do not like. Let us not take the same path past generations have taken. Let us take the good with the bad instead of ignoring the fact that the bad does exist.